Chemistry 2e: Atoms First

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Chemistry 2e: Atoms First Course Outline

What are the Essential Ideas of Chemistry?

Concepts Covered:

  • In What Contexts do we Use Chemistry?
  • What are the Phases and Classifications of Matter?
  • What are the Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter?
  • How do we Measure Matter and Energy?
  • How do we Deal with Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision in Measurement?
  • How does Mathematics Treat the Results of Measurement?

What are Atoms, Molecules, and Ions?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the History of Atomic Theory?
  • How did Atomic Theory Evolve?
  • How are Atoms Structured and Symbolized?
  • How do we Create Chemical Formulas?

Why are the Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements Important?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does Electromagnetic Energy Affect Light?
  • What is the Significance of the Bohr Model?
  • How was Quantum Theory Developed?
  • What does the Electronic Structure of Atoms Look Like?
  • Why are There Periodic Variations in Element Properties?
  • What is the Periodic Table?
  • What is the Difference between Molecular and Ionic Compounds?

How do Individual Atoms Connect to Form Complex Structures?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are Ionic Bonds Formed?
  • How are Covalent Bonds Formed?
  • What is Chemical Nomenclature?
  • What are Lewis Symbols and Structures?
  • Why are Formal Charges and Resonance Important to Molecule Behavior?
  • In What Ways do Molecular Structure and Polarity Influence Molecules?

What are the Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding?

Concepts Covered:

  • How is Valance Bond Theory Explained?
  • What is the Association between Hybrid Atomic Orbitals and Molecular Geometry?
  • How are Multiple Bonds Formed between Molecules?
  • What are the Basic Approaches to Molecular Orbital Theory?

How are Substances and Solutions Composed?

Concepts Covered:

  • How do you Calculate the Formula Mass of a Substance?
  • How do you Determine the Empirical and Molecular Formulas of Unknown Compounds?
  • What is Molarity?
  • What are the Other Units for Solution Concentrations?

How do you Define the Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions?

Concepts Covered:

  • How do you Write and Balance Chemical Equations?
  • How do we Classify Chemical Reactions?
  • How does Stoichiometry Pertain to Chemical Reactions?
  • What are the Different Types of Reaction Yields?
  • In What Ways is Quantitative Chemical Analysis Performed?

Why are the Behaviors of Gases Important to Chemistry?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is Pressure and How is It Measured?
  • How are Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature Related?
  • What is the Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions?
  • Why do the processes of Effusion and Diffusion Occur?
  • How is the Kinetic-Molecular Theory Explained?
  • What Factors Lead to Non-Ideal Gas Behavior?

How does Thermochemistry Explain the Relationships between Chemical Changes and Energy?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the Basic Characteristics that Define Different Types of Energy?
  • How is Calorimetry Used to Calculate and Interpret Heat?
  • What is Enthalpy and How is It Calculated?
  • What is the difference between the strengths of ionic versus covalent bonds?

How do Molecular Interactions Affect the State of Liquids and Solids?

Concepts Covered:

  • What Types of Intermolecular Forces are Possible between Atoms or Molecules?
  • What are the Major Properties of Liquids?
  • When do Phase Transitions Occur?
  • How are Phase Diagrams Constructed and Used?
  • What are the Distinguishing Properties of Solids?
  • How are Atoms and Ions Arranged in Lattice and Crystalline Solids?

What is the Nature of Solutions and Colloids?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does the Dissolution Process Occur?
  • What are Electrolytes?
  • How do External Factors Affect Solubility?
  • What are Colligative Properties of Solutions?
  • How are Colloids Formed?

How can Thermodynamics Be Used to Predict Chemical and Physical Changes?

Concepts Covered:

  • What Effect Does Spontaneity have on Chemical and Physical Processes?
  • What is Entropy?
  • What are the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics?
  • How is Free Energy Defined and Calculated?

What are the Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts?

Concepts Covered:

  • How is Chemical Equilibria Explained?
  • What are the Functions of Equilibrium Constants?
  • How does Le Châtelier’s Principle Explain Shifting Equilibria?
  • In What Situations are Equilibrium Calculation Used?

What are Acid-Base Equilibria?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases?
  • How are pH and pOH determined?
  • In What Ways are the Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases Determined?
  • How does the Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions Occur?
  • How do Polyprotic Acids Form?
  • What is the Composition and Function of Acid-Base Buffers?
  • Why are Acid-Base Titrations Important?

How do the Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes Occur?

Concepts Covered:

  • Under What Conditions do Precipitation and Dissolution Occur?
  • What are Lewis Acids and Bases?
  • How can Systems Exist in Multiple Equilibria?

What Topics does Electrochemistry Cover?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Balanced?
  • What are the Basic Components of Galvanic Cells?
  • How are Standard Reduction Potentials Determined?
  • How is the Nernst Equation Used to Determine Cell Potentials?
  • What are the Differences between Types of Batteries and Fuel Cells?
  • What is Corrosion?
  • How Does Electrolysis Relate to Galvanic Cells?

How does Kinetics Influence Chemical Reactions?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are Chemical Reaction Rates Determined?
  • What Factors Affect Reaction Rates?
  • How are Rate Laws Used to Calculate Reaction Rates?
  • In What Situations are Integrated Rate Laws Applied?
  • How does Collision Theory Explain How Reaction Rates are Affected?
  • Why are Reaction Mechanisms Important?
  • What is the Function of a Catalyst?

What’s the Difference Between Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals?

Concepts Covered:

  • Why is Periodicity Important?
  • What Makes Up the Representative Metals?
  • What Makes up Metalloids?
  • What are Nonmetals Made of?
  • What is Hydrogen Made of?
  • What are Carbonates Made of?
  • What is Nitrogen Made of?
  • What is Phosphorus Made of?
  • What is Oxygen Made of?
  • What is Sulfur Made of?
  • What are Halogens Made of?
  • How can Noble Gases be Used?

How Does Transition Metal Relate to Coordination Chemistry?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are Transition Metals Made of?
  • What is the Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals?

How do we Find the Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds?

What is Nuclear Chemistry?

Concepts Covered:

  • Why is Nuclear Structure and Stability Important?
  • How Do Nuclear Equations Work?
  • What is the Significance of Radioactive Decay?
  • How Does Transmutation Relate to Nuclear Energy?
  • How Can Radioisotopes be Used?
  • What are the Biological Effects of Radiation?

Why is Organic Chemistry Important?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are Hydrocarbons?
  • What is Alcohol and Ethers Made of?
  • What is the Property of Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters?
  • What is the Difference Between Amines and Amides?

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About the book

Chemistry 2e: Atoms First

Chemistry 2e: Atoms First is an atoms-first adaptation of OpenStax Chemistry 2e. The intention of “atoms-first” involves a few basic principles: first, it introduces atomic and molecular structure much earlier than the traditional approach, and it threads these themes through subsequent chapters. This approach may be chosen as a way to delay the introduction of material such as stoichiometry that students traditionally find abstract and difficult, thereby allowing students time to acclimate their study skills to chemistry. Additionally, it gives students a basis for understanding the application of quantitative principles to the chemistry that underlies the entire course. It also aims to center the study of chemistry on the atomic foundation that many will expand upon in a later course covering organic chemistry, easing that transition when the time arrives.

The second edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Substantial improvements have been made in the figures, illustrations, and example exercises that support the text narrative.

About the authors:

Senior Contributing Authors

Paul Flowers, University of North Carolina at Pembroke
Edward J. Neth, University of Connecticut
William R. Robinson, PhD
Klaus Theopold, University of Delaware
Richard Langley,
Stephen F. Austin State University

Contributing Authors

Jennifer Look, Mercer University
Allison Soult, University of Kentucky
Simon Bott, University of Houston
Donald Carpenetti, Craven Community College
Andrew Eklund, Alfred University
Emad El-Giar, University of Louisiana at Monroe
Don Frantz, Wilfrid Laurier University
Paul Hooker, Westminster College
Carol Martinez, Central New Mexico Community College
Troy Milliken, Jackson State University
Vicki Moravec, Trine University
George Kaminski, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Mark Blaser, Shasta College
Jason Powell, Ferrum College
Thomas Sorensen, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

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