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Anatomy & Physiology
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Anatomy & Physiology Course Outline

How does the human body work?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is Anatomy and Physiology?
  • How do different body parts function together?
  • What are the functions of human life?
  • What does human life require?
  • What is homeostasis?
  • What are the different internal parts of the human body called?
  • How are medical professionals able to see the inside of a human body?
  • What is the “process” of science?

What is the chemical level of the human body?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the building blocks of matter?
  • What is a chemical bond?
  • What are the characteristics of chemical reactions?
  • How are inorganic compounds essential to human functioning?
  • How are organic compounds essential to human functioning?

What is the cellular level of the human body?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the properties of the cell membrane?
  • How does the cytoplasm relate to cellular organelles?
  • How does the nucleus help with DNA replication?
  • How are proteins synthesized?
  • How do cells grow and divide?
  • How do generalized cells become differentiated into specialized cells?

What is the tissue makeup of the human body?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the different types of tissues?
  • What is the function of epithelial tissue?
  • How does connective tissue support and protect?
  • How can muscle tissue enable motion?
  • How does nervous tissue mediate perception and response?
  • What is the impact of aging on tissue?

What is the role of the integumentary system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the function of the skin at each layer?
  • What are the accessory structures of the skin?
  • What are the functions of the integumentary system?
  • What diseases is the integumentary system susceptible to?

What are bones?

Concepts Covered:

  • What critical functions does the skeletal system perform?
  • How are human bones classified?
  • What are bones made of?
  • How do bones develop?
  • What is a fracture and how does it heal?
  • How do exercise and nutrition affect bone tissue?
  • What is the most abundant mineral in the human body?

How does the skeletal system work?

Concepts Covered:

  • How is the skeletal system divided?
  • What is the human skull comprised of?
  • Why is the vertebral column so important?
  • What vital organs does the thoracic cage protect?
  • How does the axial skeleton develop over time?

What is the appendicular skeleton?

Concepts Covered:

  • What bones make up the pectoral girdle?
  • What bones are in the upper limb?
  • How do the pelvic girdle and pelvis work?
  • What bones are in the lower limb?
  • How does the appendicular skeleton develop?

Why are joints important to the human body?

Concepts Covered:

  • What two classifications do joints fall under?
  • Which joints are linked by a strong connective fiber?
  • Which joints are connected by cartilage?
  • What are the most common type of joints in the body?
  • How do joints make body movement possible?
  • How are the synovial joints specialized?
  • What process causes joints to develop?

What role does muscle tissue serve in the human body?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the different types of muscle tissues?
  • Why are skeletal muscles able to create movement?
  • How do muscle fibers contact and relax?
  • What determines the tension of a muscle?
  • How do the types of muscle fibers differ?
  • What contributes to exercise and muscle performance?
  • Which muscle tissue is vital to the heart’s operation?
  • How does smooth muscle aid in the operation of hollow organs, the circulatory system, and other tracts?
  • Where does muscle tissue come from?

What does the muscular system do?

Concepts Covered:

  • How do the skeletal muscles interact to create movement?
  • How are the skeletal muscles named?
  • Which muscles control your face, neck, and head?
  • What do the axial muscles of the abdominal wall and thorax do?
  • What do the muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limb do?
  • What do the appendicular muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs do?

How do the nervous system and nervous tissue work?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the basic functions of the nervous system?
  • What cell types make up nervous tissue?
  • How does the nervous system create different body sensations?
  • Why is the excitable membrane so important to the nervous system?
  • What creates communication between neurons?

How does the anatomy of the nervous system help it control the human body?

Concepts Covered:

  • How can the embryologic perspective help us learn the major regions of the nervous system?
  • What makes up the central nervous system?
  • Why is the central nervous system so crucial to the operation of the body?
  • What structures are found in the peripheral nervous system?

What are the components of the somatic nervous system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What structures are responsible for the special senses of taste, smell, hearing, balance, and vision?
  • How does the CNS coordinate different somatic processes?
  • How is movement initiated from the neurological connections?

What are the components of the autonomic nervous system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What structures are responsible for the special senses of taste, smell, hearing, balance, and vision?
  • How does the CNS coordinate different somatic processes?
  • How is movement initiated from the neurological connections?

What are the components of the autonomic nervous system?

Concepts Covered:

  • How is the autonomic nervous system divided?
  • What is the effect of the autonomic nervous system on the regulation of the various organ systems?
  • What is the role of higher centers of the brain in autonomic regulation?
  • How will drugs affect the autonomic system?

What is the process of the neurological exam?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the major sections of the neurological exam?
  • What is the process of the mental status exam?
  • How is the cranial nerve exam performed?
  • How would damage in the spinal cord relate to sensory or motor deficits?
  • What is the relationship between the location of the cerebellum and its function in movement?

What does the endocrine system control?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the major organs and tissues of the endocrine system?
  • What are the three major classes of hormones?
  • What are the six hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
  • What hormone is produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid?
  • What is the location and structure of the parathyroid glands?
  • Which hormone produced by the adrenal glands is responsible for the mobilization of energy stores?
  • What is the location and structure of the pineal gland?
  • What are the most important hormones produced by the testes and ovaries?
  • What is the location and structure of the pancreas?
  • What are the functions of insulin and glucagon?
  • How does aging affect the endocrine system?

What are the primary functions of blood?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are some of the unique characteristics of blood?
  • What is the process of hemopoiesis?
  • What are the various steps in the lifecycle of an erythrocyte?
  • How are leukocytes characterized?
  • What are the mechanisms involved in hemostasis?
  • Why is blood type so important?

What are the interior and exterior parts of the human heart?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the anatomy of the human heart?
  • How do the components of the conducting system distribute electrical impulses through the heart?
  • What is the relationship between blood pressure and blood flow?
  • What affects heart rate?
  • How is the heart developed?

What are the major factors affecting blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the structure and function of blood vessels?
  • What factors affect blood flow in the venous system?
  • What are the primary mechanisms of the capillary exchange?
  • How is vascular homeostasis involved in neural regulation?
  • What are the circulatory pathways?
  • How are blood vessels developed?

What are the components and anatomy of the lymphatic system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the structure and function of the lymphatic tissue?
  • What are the barrier defenses of the body?
  • How are T cells developed?
  • How does B cell tolerance develop?
  • How do pathogens evade immune responses?
  • How are depressed or overactive immune responses associated with diseases?
  • How is the immune response able to control some cancers?

What are the structures and functions of the respiratory system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the different jobs of the upper and lower respiratory tract?
  • What is the overall function of the lung?
  • Which mechanisms drive breathing?
  • How is gas exchanged in the respiratory system?
  • How does the transport of gases aid in breathing?
  • What conditions can affect the respiratory system?
  • What is the embryonic development of the respiratory system?

What are the structures and functions of the digestive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • How do humans break down food to absorb nutrients?
  • What are the basic functions of the digestive organs?
  • What is the role the mouth, pharynx and esophagus in digestion?
  • How does the stomach aid in digestion?
  • Why are the small and large intestines so important to digestion?
  • What are the main digestive roles of the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder?
  • What chemicals are involved in digestion?

Why is metabolism and nutrition essential to life?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the sum of all catabolic and anabolic reactions in the body?
  • How are carbohydrates metabolized?
  • How are lipids metabolized in the body?
  • How can protein be used for energy?
  • What are the metabolic states of the body?
  • How do our bodies regulate temperature?
  • Why are diet and nutrition so important?

What are the roles of the parts of the urinary system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the characteristics of a normal urine sample?
  • What specialized structures remove urine from the body?
  • What role do the kidneys have in the urinary system?
  • What role do the kidneys have in the urinary system?
  • What factors could contribute to kidney failure?
  • Where are water, organic compounds, and ions reabsorbed in the nephron?
  • How is renal blood flow regulated?
  • Which hormones contribute to kidney function?
  • How are fluid volume and composition regulated?
  • How does the urinary system respond to maintain homeostasis in the body?

Which mechanisms balance the intake and output of bodily fluids?

Concepts Covered:

  • Why is water so important to the body?
  • How is water intake regulated?
  • What are the functions of electrolytes?
  • How does our body balance acids and bases?
  • What are acidosis and alkalosis?

How do humans reproduce?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the structure and function of the male reproductive system?
  • What is the structure and function of the female reproductive system?
  • What changes occur during development of the male and female reproductive systems?

What are the major events in embryonic and fetal development?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the process of fertilization?
  • How do embryos develop?
  • What is the process of fetal development?
  • What maternal changes occur during pregnancy, labor, and birth?
  • How do infants adjust at birth and postnatal stages?
  • What is the process of lactation?
  • How are traits inherited?

 

Combine this content with our customizable, at-home Anatomy & Physiology Lab kits from Carolina Distance Learning, to create a complete digital learning experience for your students.

About the book

Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body system and covers standard scope and sequence requirements. Its lucid text, strategically constructed art, career features, and links to external learning tools address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the course. The web-based version of Anatomy and Physiology also features links to surgical videos, histology, and interactive diagrams.

About the authors:

Senior Contributing Authors

J. Gordon Betts, Tyler Junior College
Kelly A. Young, California State University, Long Beach
Dean H. Kruse, Portland Community College
Peter DeSaix, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Brandon Poe, Springfield Technical Community College
Oksana Korol, Aims Community College
James A. Wise, Hampton University
Eddie Johnson, Central Oregon Community College
Jody E. Johnson, Arapahoe Community College
Mark Womble, Youngstown State University

Contributing Authors

William Blaker, Furman University
Julie Bowers, East Tennessee State University
Matthew Barlow, Eastern New Mexico University
Michael Hortsch, University of Michigan
Emily Bradshaw, Florida Southern College
Nishi Bryska, University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Susan Caley Opsal, Illinois Valley Community College
Pamela Dobbins, Shelton State Community College
Boyd Campbell, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences
Kathleen Tallman, Azusa Pacific University
Rohinton Tarapore, University of Pennsylvania
Branko Jablanovic, College of Lake County
Norman Johnson, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Kenneth Crane, Texarkana College
Barbara Christie-Pope, Cornell College
Douglas Sizemore, Bevill State Community College
Maurice Culver, Florida State College at Jacksonville
Debra McLaughlin, University of Maryland University College
Bruce Maring, Daytona State College
David Wortham, West Georgia Technical College
Susan Dentel, Washtenaw Community College
Heather Cushman, Tacoma Community College
Peter Dukehart, Three Rivers Community College
Elizabeth DuPriest, Warner Pacific College
Elizabeth Tattersall, Western Nevada College
Susanna Heinze, Skagit Valley College
Julie May, William Carey University
Ann Caplea, Walsh University
Brenda Leady, University of Toledo
Sarah Leupen, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Robert Mallet, University of North Texas Health Science Center
Natalie Maxwell, Carl Albert State College, Sallisaw
Lynn Gargan, Tarant County College
Michael Giangrande, Oakland Community College
Leigh Kleinert, Grand Rapids Community College
Timothy Ballard, University of North Carolina Wilmington
Phillip Nicotera, St. Petersburg College
Marnie Chapman, University of Alaska, Sitka
William Kleinelp, Middlesex County College
Mark Jonasson, North Arkansas College
Dale Horeth, Tidewater Community College
Kathleen Weiss, George Fox University
Rita Thrasher, Pensacola State College
David Van Wylen, St. Olaf College
Elisabeth Martin, College of Lake County
Ivan Paul, John Wood Community College
Sondra Dubowsky, McLennan Community College
Mark Thomas, University of Northern Colorado
Sharon Ellerton, Queensborough Community College
Ikemefuna Nwosu, Parkland College; Lake Land College
Nicholas Mitchell, St. Bonaventure University
John Lepri, University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Patty Dolan, Pacific Lutheran University
Ellen DuPré, Central College
Betsy Ott, Tyler Junior College
Lihua Liang, Johns Hopkins University
Mary Jane Niles, University of San Francisco
Janis Thompson, Lorain County Community College
Thomas Pilat, Illinois Central College
Mike Pyle, Olivet Nazarene University
Carla Endres, Utah State University – College of Eastern Utah: San Juan Campus
Cynthia Standley, University of Arizona
Robert Sullivan, Marist College
Aaron Payette, College of Southern Nevada
AnnMarie DelliPizzi, Dominican College
Pam Elf, University of Minnesota
Cameron Perkins, South Georgia College
Robert Rawding, Gannon University
Greg Fitch, Avila University
Umesh Yadav, University of Texas Medical Branch
Shobhana Natarajan, Brookhaven College
Ann Henninger, Wartburg College
Jason Schreer, State University of New York at Potsdam
Brian Shmaefsky, Lone Star College System
Rosemary Hubbard, Marymount University
Scott Payne, Kentucky Wesleyan College
Laird Sheldahl, Mt. Hood Community College
Susan Spencer, Mount Hood Community College
Chaya Gopalan, St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Mark Hubley, Prince George’s Community College
Jeff Keyte, College of Saint Mary
Victor Greco, Chattahoochee Technical College
Tony Yates, Oklahoma Baptist University
Justin York, Glendale Community College
Cheri Zao, North Idaho College
Elena Zoubina, Bridgewater State University; Massasoit Community College
Noelle Cutter, Molloy College
Lynnette Danzl-Tauer, Rock Valley College
Myriam Feldman, Lake Washington Institute of Technology; Cascadia Community College
Margaret Weck, St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Neil Westergaard, Williston State College
Jane Davis, Aurora University
Kim Aaronson, Aquarius Institute; Triton College
Lopamudra Agarwal, Augusta Technical College
Gary Allen, Dalhousie University
Robert Allison, McLennan Community College
Heather Armbruster, Southern Union State Community College
Lynn Wandrey, Mott Community College
David Pfeiffer, University of Alaska, Anchorage
Eileen Preston, Tarrant County College
Eric Sun, Middle Georgia State College
Tom Swenson, Ithaca College
Shobhana Natarajan, Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

 
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