Anatomy & Physiology I 

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Anatomy & Physiology I Course Outline

Unit 1.1: Why is anatomical terminology important?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the study of anatomy?
  • How does physiology differ from anatomy?
  • What is life?
  • Why is anatomical position important?
  • What are the different types of medical imaging?

Unit 1.2: What is homeostasis?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does thermoregulation work?
  • What is negative feedback?
  • What is positive feedback?

Unit 1.3: How are the structures of the body organized?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the hierarchical levels of organization in life?
  • Why are organ systems important?

Unit 2.1: What are basic chemistry principles?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the properties of matter?
  • Why are electrons important?
  • How do elements and compounds differ?
  • What is the periodic table of elements?

Unit 2.2: What are chemical bonds, reactions, and vital inorganic compounds?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are ionic bonds?
  • What are covalent bonds?
  • How do hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions differ?
  • What is the role of energy in chemical reactions?
  • What forms of energy are important in human fuctioning?
  • What are the unique qualities of water?
  • How are concentrations of solutes measured?
  • What role does water play in chemical reactions?
  • Why are salts important in the body?
  • What is pH and how do acids and bases compare?

Unit 2.3: What are the structures and functions of organic compounds?

Concepts Covered:

  • What large organic molecules are important to life?
  • How do polymerization and hydrolysis differ?
  • What are carbohydrates?
  • What is the difference in monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides?
  • What are lipids?
  • What is a phospholipid?
  • How are proteins formed?
  • Why are amino acids critical to life?
  • What are polypeptides?
  • What are the levels of protein structure?
  • What are nucleic acids?
  • What nitrogenous bases make up nucleic acids?

Unit 3.1: What are the levels of intracellular organization?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are cells?
  • What is a eukaryotic cell?
  • What are the parts of a eukaryotic animal cell?
  • Why do I need to know this about my body, or as a nurse?
  • What is inside the nucleus?
  • What are genes?
  • What is DNA replication?
  • How do genes regulate expression?

Unit 3.2: How are proteins synthesized?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
  • How does transcription occur?
  • How does translation occur?

Unit 3.3: What is the structure and function of the cell membrane?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the structure of a cell membrane?
  • How do molecules or particles cross cell membranes?
  • What is tonicity and how does it relate to water balance?
  • What is active transport and how does it work?
  • What are the different types of energy?

Unit 3.4: How do energy, metabolism, and enzymes relate to cells?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is energy?
  • What are the different metabolic pathways?
  • What are enzymes?
  • What is the induced fit model?
  • How can enzymes be inhibited?

Unit 3.5: What is the cell cycle and mitotic cell division?

Concepts Covered:

  • Why do cells divide?
  • What are the stages of the cell cycle?
  • What are the phases of mitosis?
  • How do the cell cycle and mitosis relate?
  • Can mitosis cause cancer?

Unit 3.6: What is meiotic cell division?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is meiosis?
  • What are the phases of meiosis I?
  • What are the phases of meiosis II?

Unit 3.7: How do mitosis and meiosis differ?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?

Unit 4.1: What are characteristics of primary tissue types?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the basic categories of tissues?
  • Why is epithelial tissue important?
  • What are the different types of epithelial tissue?
  • Why is glandular epithelium and secretions important?
  • What types of connective tissue are found throughout the body?
  • What are the different types of connective tissue?
  • How do the different types of muscle tissue compare?
  • What is the purpose of nervous tissue?
  • How are organs composed?

Unit 4.2: What are the structure and functions of membranes in tissues?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the different types of membranes?
  • What is the generalized functions of epithelial tissue?

Unit 4.3: How does injury and aging affect tissues?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does tissue repair after injury?
  • What impact does aging have on tissues?
  • How does cancer affect tissue?

Unit 5.1: What is the structure and function of the skin?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the different layers of the skin?
  • What is the epidermis and how does skin cancer affect it?
  • What are the dermal layers?
  • What are the skin’s accessory organs?
  • How do the different layers of the skin compare?

Unit 5.2: What are factors that affect skin function?

Concepts Covered:

  • How do skin pigment disorders affect skin?
  • Where does vitamin D come from?
  • How does aging affect the skin?
  • What are other factors that can affect the skin?

Unit 6.1: What are bones?

Concepts Covered:

  • What critical functions does the skeletal system perform?
  • How are human bones classified?
  • What are bones made of?
  • What are the functions of bone markings?
  • What composes the histology of bones?
  • What is the difference between compact and spongy bone?

Unit 6.2: How do bones grow, develop, remodel, and repair fractures?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the different kinds of ossification?
  • What are the structures of long bones and how do they grow?
  • What diseases affect bones and how do bones repair a fracture?
  • How does nutrition affect bone tissue?
  • How do hormones and aging affect bone tissue?

Unit 6.3: What is the axial skeleton?

Concepts Covered:

  • What bones make up the brain case?
  • What is the skull?
  • What does the skull look like from different views?
  • What are the frontal and occipital bones?
  • What is the sphenoid bone?
  • What is the ethmoid bone?
  • What are sutures and disorders of the skull?
  • What are the facial bones of the skull?
  • What does the skull look like from the lateral view?
  • What is the vertebral column?
  • What is the general structure of a vertebrae?
  • What are intervertebral discs?
  • What is the thoracic cage?
  • How does the axial skeleton develop embryonically?
  • What are homeostatic imbalances?

Unit 6.4: What is the appendicular skeleton?

Concepts Covered:

  • The appendicular skeletal system consists of what bones?
  • The arm is made of what bones?
  • What are the humerus, ulna, and radius?
  • What structures comprise the pelvic girdle?
  • What bones comprise the lower limbs?

Unit 7.1: What are joints?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are joints classified?
  • What are the different types of body movements?
  • What are synovial joints?
  • What are shoulder joints?
  • What are knee joints?

Unit 7.2: What is the structure and function of muscle tissue?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the types of muscle tissue, cellular anatomy, and functional unit of contraction?
  • What is the histology of muscle tissue?
  • What are the functional properties of muscle?

Unit 7.3: What is the gross and microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are skeletal muscles organized?

Unit 7.4: What are the energy needs for skeletal muscle contraction?

Concepts Covered:

  • How do we send signals to skeletal muscles?
  • What is the sliding filament theory?
  • How do muscles contract and relax?
  • What are the steps of the SFT?
  • How is ACh removed?
  • What are the needs for muscular energy?

Unit 7.5: How are muscles able to increase tension and perform during different levels of exercise?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the function of a motor unit?
  • What are myograms and what do they tell us about muscle twitch and summation?
  • When do isotonic and isometric contractions occur?
  • What are the different types of muscle fibers?
  • What effect does exercise have on skeletal muscle fibers?

Unit 7.6: How does muscle tissue regenerate?

Concepts Covered:

  • What effect does aging have on skeletal muscle?
  • Are there any disorders that affect muscle tissue?

Unit 7.7: What are the similarities and differences of cardiac and smooth muscle tissue?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is cardiac muscle?
  • What is smooth muscle?

Unit 8.1: What are the functional and anatomical organizations of the nervous system?

Concepts Covered:

  • How is the nervous system divided?
  • What are the major divisions of the nervous system?
  • How is the body controlled?
  • What did we learn?

Unit 8.2: What is the gross and microscopic anatomy of nerve tissue?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the anatomy of a neuron?
  • What are the cells of the nervous tissue?

Unit 8.3: What is action potential?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is membrane potential?
  • Why is the membrane semi-permeable?
  • What is the action potential?
  • How is graded potential different from action potential?
  • How to graded potentials affect membranes?
  • How does an action potential travel along the neuron?

Unit 8.4 How do neurons communicate?

Concepts Covered:

  • What happens during a synaptic transmission?
  • How are neurotransmitter systems grouped?
  • What did we learn?

Unit 8.5: What is the anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the regions of the spinal cord?
  • What are the roles of the spinal nerves?
  • Which regions of the spinal cord are responsible for sensory functions & motor functions?
  • What is gray and white matter?
  • How are peripheral sensations sent to the brain?
  • What is the reflex arc?
  • What causes neural disorders?

Unit 8.6 What are the origins, structures, and functions of the cranial nerves and all parts of the brain?

Concepts Covered:

  • Introduction: How is the localization of function concept applied to the brain?
  • How does the brain develop?
  • What are the structures of the cerebrum?
  • What are the regions of the cerebral cortex?
  • Who was Phineas P. Gage?: The brain’s ability to recover
  • How much of your brain do you use?
  • What is Parkinson’s disease?
  • Is being left-brained or right-brained a myth?
  • What are common brain disorders?
  • What are the structures of the brain stem?
  • How is blood supplied to the brain?
  • What are ventricles?
  • What are disorders of the CNS?

Unit 8.7: What is the structure & function of the autonomic nervous system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the divisions of the nervous system?
  • How does the hypothalamus control the autonomic nervous system?
  • What is dual innervation and how does it affect homeostasis?
  • What disorders compromise the sympathetic functions?
  • What did we learn?

Unit 8.8: How are general senses defined?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the difference between general and specific senses?
  • What are sensory receptors?
  • What are the functions of neuronal components?
  • What are the components and functions of the somatic motor pathways?
  • What are the basic elements of the somatic nervous system?
  • What disorders affect the sensory, motor and integrative systems?
  • How do people perceive touch?

Unit 8.9: How are the special senses defined?

Concepts Covered:

  • What does the G-Protein coupled receptor do?
  • How are different types of taste perceived?
  • What are the different parts of the olfactory system?
  • How does audition (hearing) work?
  • What affects a person’s equilibrium?
  • What did we learn?

Unit 8.10: What structures and functions are responsible for the sense of vision?

Concepts Covered:

  • What structures are necessary for vision?
  • What are extrinsic eye muscles responsible for?
  • How does the eye process images?
  • What functions occur on the microscopic level of the retina?
  • What is photoisomerization?
  • How do the eyes process and perceive color?
  • What are the different visual pathways?

About the book

Anatomy & Physiology I 

This is the Anatomy and Physiology I course developed by the Community College Consortium of Bioscience Credentials. Created by subject matter experts under the Department of Labor’s Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program, these courses can be used as-is or modified to meet your own learning objectives and teaching style.

About the authors:

Senior Contributing Authors

Community College Consortium for Bioscience Credentials (C3BC)

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