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Anatomy & Physiology II

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This course includes:

306

practice questions

205

engagement activities

228

assessment questions

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Anatomy & Physiology II Course Outline

Unit 1.1 : What is the Endocrine System?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
  • What are the glands of the endocrine system?

Unit 1.2 : What are hormones and glands?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are some different types of hormones?
  • How do hydrophobic and hydrophilic hormones behave?
  • How are hormones regulated?
  • What is the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland?
  • What is the thyroid gland?
  • What are the adrenal glands?
  • What is the pineal gland?
  • What are gonadal and placental hormones?
  • What is the pancreas?

Unit 1.3 : What organs have secondary endocrine function, and what problems can occur?

Concepts Covered:

  • What specific organs have secondary endocrine function?
  • What problems can occur due to an abnormal endocrine system?

Unit 1.4 : What is blood?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the functions and characteristics of blood?
  • What are the principle components of blood?
  • How are formed elements produced?

Unit 1.5 : What are erythrocytes?

Concepts Covered:

  • What does an erythrocyte look like?
  • What is hemoglobin?
  • What is the lifecycle of an erythrocyte?
  • What are some disorders that arise from abnormal erythrocytes?

Unit 1.6 : What are leukocytes?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is emigration, and how does it occur?
  • What are the classifications of leukocytes?
  • What is the lifecycle of a leukocyte?
  • What are some disorders that arise from abnormal leukocytes?

Unit 1.7 : What are platelets?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are some disorders that arise from abnormal platelets?
  • Can you identify the formed elements?
  • What is hemostasis?

Unit 1.8 : What is blood typing?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the ABO and Rh blood group?
  • How do you determine ABO blood type?
  • What are the clinical connections to hemostasis and types of blood disorders?

Unit 2.1 : What is the heart?

Concepts Covered:

  • Where is the heart located?
  • How is the heart setup?
  • How does the heart circulate blood?
  • What path does blood take in the heart?
  • What is myocardial movement?
  • How does a heart valve work?
  • What is coronary circulation?

Unit 2.2 : What is cardiac muscle, and how does the electrical conduction system work?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is a cardiac muscle?
  • How does the electrical conduction system work?
  • How are membrane potentials and ion movement related?
  • How do you analyze a ECG?

Unit 2.3 : What is the cardiac cycle?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the phases of the cardiac cycle?
  • What should a heart sound like?
  • What is the Wiggers Diagram?

Unit 2.4 : What is Cardiac Physiology?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are cardiac output and heart rate related?
  • What is a cardiovascular center?
  • What other factors influence heart rate?
  • What factors influence stroke volume?

Unit 2.5 : What are conditions of the heart and their clinical connections?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is CPR?
  • What are some clinical connections to heart problems?
  • What are some common disease and abnormalities of the heart?

Unit 2.6 : What are blood vessels?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the structure and function of blood vessels?
  • What are arteries and capillaries?
  • What are veins and metarterioles?

Unit 2.7 : What is blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance?

Concepts Covered:

  • What components make up arterial blood pressure?
  • How do you calculate blood flow?
  • What variables affect blood flow and blood pressure?
  • What are the skeletal muscle pump and the respiratory pump?
  • How do hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure interact?

Unit 2.8 : How is the vascular system regulated?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does neural regulation impact vascular homeostasis?
  • How does endocrine regulation impact vascular hemeostasis?
  • How does autoregulation work?
  • How does exercise affect vascular homeostasis?

Unit 2.9 : What circulatory pathways exist in the body?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is pulmonary circulation?
  • What is systematic circulation?
  • What is coronary circulation?
  • What are the thoracic aorta’s major branches?
  • What are the abdominal aorta’s major branches?
  • What arteries serve the upper limbs?
  • What arteries serve the lower limbs?
  • What are systemic veins?
  • What is the superior vena cava?
  • What are the veins of the head and neck?
  • What veins drain the upper limbs?
  • What is the inferior vena cava?
  • What veins drain the lower limbs?
  • What is the hepatic portal system?

Unit 2.10 : How do blood vessels develop?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is fetal circulation?

Unit 2.11 : What disorders are associated with the vascular system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is Edema?
  • What are some disorders that arise from an abnormal vascular system?
  • What is circulatory shock?

Unit 2.12 : What is the lymphatic system?

Concepts Covered:

  • When does the lymphatic system act?
  • What are the primary lymphoid organs?
  • What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
  • How is the lymph formed?

Unit 2.13 : What is the immune system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is innate immunity?
  • How does the complement system operate?
  • What is inflammation?

Unit 2.14 : How does adaptive immunity work?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does the body make T and B cells?
  • How do T lymphocytes recognize cells?
  • How do B cells create immunoglobulins?
  • What is mediated immunity?

Unit 2.15 : What are the types of immune responses and disorders?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the types of immune response?
  • What are some common immune disorders?

Unit 3.1 : What is the respiratory system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the respiratory system setup?
  • What role does the nose play in the conducting zone?
  • What role does the pharynx play in the conducting zone?
  • What role does the larynx play in the conducting zone?
  • What role do the trachea and bronchial tree play in the conducting zone?
  • What is the respiratory zone?
  • What role do the lungs play in the respiratory system?
  • What is the pleura of the lungs?

Unit 3.2 : How do we breathe?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the process of breathing?
  • How does pulmonary ventilation work?
  • What are the two major steps of pulmonary ventilation?
  • What is respiratory volume and capacity?
  • How do you control ventilation?
  • What factors affect the respiratory centers?

Unit 3.3 : How does gas exchange and transportation work?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is Dalton’s Law?
  • What is Henry’s Law?
  • What is ventilation and perfusion?
  • What role do oxygen and hemoglobin play?
  • What role does carbon dioxide play?

Unit 3.4 : How does the respiratory system develop?

Concepts Covered:

  • What steps occur in respiratory development?

Unit 3.5 : What are some common disruptions and disorders of the respiratory system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are some disorders that arise from abnormal conditions?
  • What are some other disorders of the respiratory system?

Unit 3.6 : What is the digestive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What parts make up the digestive system?
  • What is the alimentary canal?
  • What is the peritoneum?
  • What are the basic processes of the digestive system?
  • What functions do the organs play in the digestive system?

Unit 3.7 : What role do the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus play in the digestive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What components make up the mouth?
  • What components make up the tongue?
  • What are the salivary glands?
  • What role do the teeth play in the digestive system?
  • What role does the pharynx play in the digestive system?
  • What role does the esophagus play in the digestive system?
  • What is deglutition?

Unit 3.8 : What role does the stomach play in the digestive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the regions of the stomach?
  • What adaptations does the stomach wall have?
  • What are the digestive functions of the stomach?

Unit 3.9 : What role do the small and large intestines play in the digestive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What makes up the small intestine?
  • What unique features does the small intestine wall have?
  • What are mechanical and chemical digestion in the small intestine?
  • What makes up the large intestine?
  • What unique features does the large intestine wall have?
  • What are mechanical and chemical digestion in the large intestine?

Unit 3.10 : What accessory organs are involved in the digestive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What role does the liver play in digestion?
  • What role does the pancreas play in digestion?
  • What role does the gallbladder play in digestion?

Unit 3.11 : How do chemical digestion and absorption work?

Concepts Covered:

  • What digestive enzymes are involved in digestion?
  • How does carbohydrate digestion work?
  • How does protein digestion work?
  • How do lipid digestion and nucleic acid digestion work?
  • How does absorption work?
  • What are the types of absorption?

Unit 3.12 : How is the digestive system regulated, and what problems can occur?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the phases of gastric secretion?
  • What are the types of regulatory mechanisms for the digestive system?
  • What are some disorders of the digestive system?

Unit 3.13 : What is the metabolism?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the metabolic reactions?
  • What are catabolic and anabolic reactions?
  • What hormones regulate the metabolism?
  • What are Oxidation-Reduction Reactions?

Unit 3.14 : How does cellular respiration work?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are carbohydrate metabolism and cellular respiration related?
  • What is glycolysis?
  • What are the differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?
  • What is the Krebs Cycle?
  • What is oxidative phosphorylation?

Unit 3.15 : How does lipid metabolism work?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the major steps in lipid metabolism?
  • What is lipolysis?
  • What is ketogenesis?
  • What is lipogenesis?

Unit 3.16 : How does protein metabolism work?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are the major steps in protein metabolism?
  • What is the urea cycle?
  • How are amino acids used as an energy source?

Unit 3.17 : What are the metabolic states of the body?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the absorptive state?
  • What is the postabsorptive state?
  • What happens during starvation?
  • What is thermoregulation?
  • How does heat exchange occur?
  • What is the body’s metabolic rate?

Unit 3.18 : What are nutrition and diet?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is a calorie?
  • What are vitamins?
  • What are minerals?

Unit 3.19 : What disorders are associated with the metabolism?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are some examples of metabolism disorders?

Unit 4.1 : What is the urinary system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is a general overview of the urinary system?
  • What components make up the urinary system?
  • What is the internal anatomy of the kidney?
  • What is the micturition reflex?

Unit 4.2 : How do blood, filtrate, and urine flow through their respective systems?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does blood flow through the kidney?
  • How does filtrate flow through the kidney?
  • How does urine flow through the kidney?

Unit 4.3 : What is the importance of nephron physiology?

Concepts Covered:

  • What type of filtration occurs at the renal corpuscle?
  • What is the glomerular filtration rate?
  • How is suitable rate flow maintained?
  • How do secretion and reabsorption occur?
  • What substances are reabsorbed or secreted in the proximal convoluted tubule?
  • What substances are reabsorbed or secreted in the Loop of Henle?
  • What substances are reabsorbed or secreted in the Distal Convoluted Tubule?
  • How is fluid volume and composition maintained?
  • What are the characteristics of urine?

Unit 4.4 : What are the disorders of the urinary system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What are some common urinary system disorders?

Unit 4.5 : How is fluid and electrolyte homeostasis achieved?

Concepts Covered:

  • How does osmosis work to maintain homeostasis?
  • What is a fluid compartment?
  • What is the composition of body fluids?
  • How does fluid move between compartments?
  • How does solute move between compartments?

Unit 4.6 : How is acid and base homeostasis achieved?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is water intake and output regulated?
  • What is the role of ADH in water regulation?
  • What are the most important electrolytes to keep balanced?
  • How are sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate levels regulated?
  • How does acid-base balance work?
  • How does the respiratory system regulated acid-base balance?
  • How does renal regulation of acid-base balance work?

Unit 4.7 : What disorders are associated with fluid imbalance?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is Edema?
  • What disorders are associated with acid-base imbalance?
  • What is ketoacidosis?

Unit 5.1 : What is the anatomy and physiology of the male reproductive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the overview of the male reproductive systems?
  • What is the process of spermatogenesis?
  • How is sperm structured?
  • What glands are related with the male reproductive system?
  • What is the penis?
  • What are different types of hormonal control in the male reproductive system?

Unit 5.2 : What is the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is the overview of the female reproductive systems?
  • What takes place in the process of Oogenesis?
  • What are different types of hormonal control in the female reproductive system?
  • What are the uterine tubes?
  • What happens in the menstrual cycle?
  • What are the breasts?

Unit 5.3 : What are differences in the developments of male and female reproductive systems?

Concepts Covered:

  • What happens in the development of the female and male reproductive systems?
  • What types of sexual development occurs during puberty?

Unit 5.4 : What effects does aging and disorders have on the reproductive system?

Concepts Covered:

  • What happens with the reproductive system when aging and disorders occur?

Unit 5.5 : How does the fertilization process make a fetus?

Concepts Covered:

  • How is a fetus made?
  • What happens during the pre-implantation stage of embryonic development?
  • What are the embryonic membranes?
  • How does the placenta develop?
  • What is organogenesis?
  • What happens during fetal development?

Unit 5.6 : What happens during pregnancy and labor?

Concepts Covered:

  • How are hormones affected during and after pregnancy?
  • What anatomical changes occur in a mother during pregnancy?
  • What physiological changes occur in a mother during pregnancy?
  • What happens during the 3 stages of labor?
  • What adjustments are made through pregnancy?

Unit 5.7 : What happens in lactation?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is lactation?
  • What types of changes happen in the composition of breast milk?

Unit 5.8 : What types of diagnostics and disorders are associated with development?

Concepts Covered:

  • What happens during the in vitro fertilization?
  • What happens during fetal ultrasonography, amniocentesis, and chorionic villi sampling?
  • What disorders are associated with embryonic, fetal, and infant development?

Unit 5.9 : What are genetics and heredity?

Concepts Covered:

  • What is genetics and heredity?
  • What is autosomal dominant inheritance?
  • What is incomplete dominance and codominance?
  • What are sex chromosomes?
  • What diseases and disorders happens with heredity?

Combine this content with our customizable, at-home Anatomy & Physiology Lab kits from Carolina Distance Learning, to create a complete digital learning experience for your students.

About the book

Anatomy & Physiology II 

This is the Anatomy and Physiology II course developed by the Community College Consortium of Bioscience Credentials. Created by subject matter experts under the Department of Labor’s Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program, these courses can be used as-is or modified to meet your own learning objectives and teaching style.

About the authors:

Senior Contributing Authors

Community College Consortium of Bioscience Credentials (c3bc)

 
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